Pronation and Over Pronation


Pronation is a normal foot motion. This word refers to the action of the foot as you apply weight through the gait cycle. As the foot strikes the ground, starting from the heel and rolling forward through the arch and onto the toes, a specific series of movements takes place called pronation.

Essentially, the heel and ankle roll inwards after the heel strikes the ground, and as weight is transferred to the midfoot, the arch flattens out.

Pronation is normal; a problem arises where there is over pronation. When a person over pronates, the arch remains flat, and the ankle rolls too far inward as the toes begin to push off. This places increased stress on the muscles and ligaments of the foot.

Over Pronation

While the foot motion called pronation is a normal motion of the foot, when there is excessive pronation, or over pronation, patients are thought to have a higher risk of developing lower extremity problems. Over pronation has been implicated in many conditions, including:

Shin Splints

Stress Fractures


Chondromalacia (Runner's Knee)

Plantar Fasciitis

Treatment of over pronation is focused on corrective footwear and orthotics.

Shoes with adequate padding and support help most people with over pronation. Most athletic shoe stores have a knowledgeable staff that can assist you in finding appropriate shoes. Orthotics and arch supports may be helpful for many patients.